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Introduction to Variable Types in Java.



A variable is a container which holds the value while the java program is executed. A variable is assigned with a datatype. Variable is a name of memory location. There are three types of variables in java: local, instance and static.

In order to use a variable in a program you to need to follow two steps:-

1. Variable Declaration

2. Variable Initialization

Java Variable Declaration:

To declare a variable, you must specify the data type & give the unique variable name.

java variable declaration

Java Variable Initialization:

To initialize a variable, you must assign a valid value to variable.

java variable initialization

• Following are valid examples of variable declaration and initialization in Java:-

int a, b, c;         // Declares three ints, a, b, and c.
int a = 20, b = 30;  // Example of initialization
byte B = 20;         // initializes a byte type variable B.
double pi = 3.14159; // declares and assigns a value of PI.
char a = 'a';        // the char variable a is initialized with value 'a'

Types of variables:

In Java, there are three types of variables:

• Local Variables

• Instance Variables

• Static Variables

Example: Types of Variables in Java

class Student {
    int age = 20; //instance variable  
    static int marks = 50; //static variable  
    void displayRecord() {
        int total = 90; //local variable  

Local Variables:

• Local Variables are a variable that are declared inside the body of a method.

• variable will be destroyed once it exits the method.

• Access modifiers cannot be used for local variables.

• Local Variable does't have default value.

• Initial value should be assigned before the first use.


Here, local variable age is defined inside displayRecord() method and its scope is limited to only this method.

public class Student {
   public void displayRecord() {
      int age = 0;
      age = age + 15;
      System.out.println("Student age is : " + age);

   public static void main(String args[]) {
      Student s1 = new Student();


Student age is : 15

Instance Variables:

• Instance variables are declared in a class, but outside a method.

• Instance variables are defined without the static keyword.

• Instance variables are created when an object is created with keyword "new".

• Instance variables are destroyed when the object is destroyed.

• Instance variables can be declared in class level before or after use.

• Access modifiers can be given for instance variables.


public class Student {

   // this instance variable is visible for any child class.
   public String name;

   // rollno variable is visible in Student class only.
   private int rollno;

   // The name variable is assigned in the constructor.
   public Student (String stuName) {
      name = stuName;

   // The rollno variable is assigned a value.
   public void setRoll(int stuRoll) {
      rollno = stuRoll;

   // This method prints the student details.
   public void printStu() {
      System.out.println("Name  : " + name );
      System.out.println("Roll No : " + rollno);

   public static void main(String args[]) {
      Student s1 = new Student("Varun");


Name  : Varun
Roll No :15

Static Variables

• static variables are declared with the static keyword in a class

• Static variables are initialized only once, at the start of the program execution.

• These variables should be initialized before the initialization of any instance variables.

• Static variables are stored in the static memory.

• Static variables are created when the program starts.

• Static variables are destroyed when the program stops.

• Static variables can be accessed with the class name ClassName.VariableName.


public class Student1 {

   // marks  variable is a private static variable
   private static int marks;

   // Subject is a constant
   public static final String SUBJECT = "Science";

   public static void main(String args[]) {
      marks = 650;
      System.out.println(SUBJECT +" " + "Marks:" + marks);


Science Marks:650

The End:

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